We show that the outcome of asymmetric tax competition crucially depends on the ability of multinational firms to shift profits. In contrast, knowledge flows based on high-tech sector-countries cannot benefit from low-tech sector-countries and only to a very limited extent from other high-tech sources. We study the effects of the taxation of digital platforms on the online advertising market. The sample equally represents developed and developing countries. Using firm-level data from Finland and Italy in and , we do not find empirical evidence that EPL increases the propensity to train or the intensity of firm-provided training.

gesamtarbeitsvertrag maschinenindustrie

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Asymmetric effects both in conditional volatilities as well as in conditional correlations are being assessed, which masfhinenindustrie hardly been considered in intersectoral comovement studies by now. Thereby, the paper provides empirical evidence regarding the optimal choice of the learning place for both human resource managers as well as educational decision makers who aim to combine education and training, e. However, the tracker may also leak highly specific information on multi-homers and use it to help advertisers gesamtarbeitsverrrag competing publishers.

These findings demonstrate the importance of preferences as a channel through which political decision-making institutions can affect public policies. As the interest rate enters the critical zero lower bound ZLB region, dynamics between variables and the effect of shocks change.

Aktuelle Daten zum Ener -gieverbrauch zeigen, dass man von diesem Ziel noch weit entfernt ist. In a pseudo out-of-sample exercise, our approach beats relevant benchmarks for forecasting CPI inflation and an output gap and adds information to the benchmark forecasts for GDP and employment. The dataset provides geographic coordinates for inventor and applicant locations in However, conditional on the given industry structure, individual firms face fewer competitors, if they actually use IPRs.


Based on a representative sample of firms for Austria, Germany, and Switzerland we find that policies in all three countries essentially promote the adoption of technologies and they are practically ineffective for the intensity, which poses a great challenge to future policy designs.

gesamtarbeitsvertrag maschinenindustrie

Further, there is a lot of anecdotal evidence that weather anomalies affect consumer spending and retail business. Using panel data on Swiss manufacturers, we find that an appreciation increases high-skilled and reduces low-skilled employment in most firms, while total gesamtarbeitsveryrag remains roughly unchanged.

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Further, statistically significant negative relationship between ICT-enabled product innovation and crisis vulnerability pro-cyclical behaviour is found only for new products or services that contain ICT components, and are therefore directly affected by crisis-related decreasing product demand. By collecting information on consumers across outlets, trackers provide valuable maschnenindustrie to the advertisers about multi-homing users. We nd that, ceteris paribus, self-dispensation leads to a lowered regional density of pharmacies.

Second, knowledge flows are increasingly concentrated in information and communication technologies.

gesamtarbeitsvertrag maschinenindustrie

Deductibles are commonly used to tame maschinenindustriie health care costs. The results show a negative influence of news reporting on the self-assessment of the companies surveyed, also when controlling for the overall economic situation.

We develop a theory model, where transfer pricing patterns are governed by a generalized concealment cost function CCF. Measuring the link between deflation and depression is hampered by the errors-in-variables problem in historical CPI data. We find that they have a significant transitory nature, with employment and capital growth declining when FDI falls, particularly in down- stream industries supplied by locals. Overall we find strong evidence that in addition to producing coherent forecasts, reconciliation also leads to improvements in forecast accuracy.


gesamtarbeitsvertrag maschinenindustrie

This raises the question of how countries should organize and design their VET curricula so that their youth make a smooth transition from education to gesamtarbeitsvettrag. Generic, academic and soft skills are rarely provided. Results show a one-way causal relationship; we find evidence for that firms?

I do not find a statistically significant threshold effect on any of these outcomes— also not when analyzing the effect of EPL by industry. We find neither direct nor indirect effects of product innovation in energy-related products on labour productivity. In particular, the paper puts emphasis on the fiscal implications of hosting MNEs and their relation to the current tax environment in Switzerland.

– Swissmem – Swissmem

Le ripercussioni dell’attuale forza del franco dovrebbero quindi essere meno incisive rispetto all’ultimo periodo di valutazione, terminato nell’introduzione del tasso di cambio dell’Euro da parte della Banca nazionale Svizzera BNS.

This unexpected change of regime induced a temporary uncertainty about future prices geeamtarbeitsvertrag foreign markets. Der Aufschwung in Deutschland geht in sein sechstes Jahr. The results show a negative in uence of news reporting on the self-assessment of the companies surveyed, also when controlling for the overall economic situation.

Drawing on evidence from 72 studies, I find that EPL has no statistically significant effect on the unemployment level. While all indicators approximate uncertainty along some certain dimension, none of the indicators directly captures Knightian Uncertainty.

We focus on Rome, Italy.