The score merely prescribes proportional distances. A fine and delicate property of the Etudes Australes is the utilization of sympathetically vibrating resonant strings, which are not actually hammered at all, but just freed of the dampers to be able to resound. For Cage the resulting etudes represented certain political and social views. An open note is to be held as long as possible beyond the succeeding closed note if there are many closed notes, a pedal-like notation indicates where the open note may be released. The process of composition ran as follows. The etudes, conceived as duets for two independent hands, are extremely difficult to play.

john cage etudes australes

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Complete Piano Music Vol.

The aggregates themselves were selected from the list of available aggregates, described above. Furthermore, the immense complexity of the music also had a social function. The pieces are notoriously difficult to play.

Etudes Australes – Wikipedia

The hands are forbidden to assist each other. All these works were composed during the s, which is when, as Schleiermacher points out in his comprehensive booklet text, Cage returns to downright composing of detailed compositions.

john cage etudes australes

This page was last edited on 11 Augustat The process of composition ran as follows. A New York Times critic made a similar observation, suggesting that if Etudes Australes were to last beyond Cage’s life, they would do so because of the stars themselves. The resulting notes reflect only the horizontal positions of the stars, and not all stars are used, because the maps used a variety of colors, and Cage’s chance operations limited the choices every time to specific colors.

Just two types of notes are used, closed and open noteheads.

Etudes Australes

Open ones are to be held until right before the consecutive note in the same hand, while closed ones are to be played just briefly. Schleiermacher has dedicated this recording to Grete Sultan.


European critic Heinz-Klaus Metzger was thrilled by the collection and told Cage that these etudes were composed not by Cage but by God, alluding to the stars from which the collection is derived. Since these appear according to the way the performer decides to emphasize or de-emphasize certain elements of his playing, one has to come to a auxtrales as how to do this, if one wants austrzles tonal background all the time by way of the resonating, un-damped strings that are not actually played, or if one decides on something else.

john cage etudes australes

One finds all chords. Reviewing the then recently published edition of Etudes Australes inBurge doubted the possibility of performance and wrote that “even if a performance were possible, [ Although individual etudes austrlaes appeared on compilations, the complete cycle has only been recorded four times.

She had some few complaints, and gave some suggestions, but on the whole she was open, even at this age, to new ways of interpretation, differing from her own practice.

Etudes Australes

It seemed to me to be a little strange that an older woman should busy herself with sticks and strike the piano. All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Articles with hAudio microformats Articles with Japanese-language external links.

Etudes Australes comprise 32 etudes grouped in 4 books of 8 etudes each. For Cage the resulting etudes represented certain political and social views. These pieces are very difficult to play and to hear but when you know them well, they take on a certain shape and form that you must follow and understand each time–even if the performance changes in other ways.

Grete Sultan was enthusiastic about the prospect of Etudes Australes [9] and after playing more and more of Cage’s new etudes in public, she recorded the complete cycle in books 1 and 2 and books 3 and 4. The latter are quoted in Dettmar The second idea was to use star aistrales as source material, as Australws had already done with the orchestral Atlas Eclipticalis in and with Song Books in You know, people think he [ Cage austrxles didn’t mind how the performer put the etuees together but that is not at all true.


Washington Post staff writer Tim Pagewriting 6 years after Cage’s death, dismissed the work as “an interesting idea, but a lousy piece, as it would have had to be”, [15] whereas a review of Steffen Schleiermacher ‘s recording of the cycle in The Guardian is more neutral [16] and Jed Distler’s review of the same record at Classics Today is very well-disposed towards the piece.

It is very sensitive and intelligent to think in this way, adding considerably to the value of this recording. The etudes, conceived as duets for two independent hands, are extremely difficult to play. Years of recording are given, not years of release. This section lists, in chronological order, only the austtrales recordings.

Then through chance operations using the I Chinghe transferred these tones to the available octaves for the left and right hands. Freeman Etudes for violin —90 and Etudes Boreales for cellopiano, or both together.

In later etudes certain passages are too dense to be included on the page; jon passages are indicated by a beam with stems referring to the rhythm of the passage and a capital letter which refers to the Appendix.